By Hari G. Garg, Mary K. Cowman, Charles A. Hales
The discovering by way of Emil Fischer that glucose and fructose on remedy with phenylhydrazine gave the same osazone led him to the elucidation of stereochemistry of carbohydrates. because then, growth within the box of carbohydrates has been impressive with the unraveling their uncomplicated constitution, biosynthesis, immunology, services, and scientific makes use of, for natural carbohydrates and for protein-linked carbohydrates (glycoproteins and proteoglycans). The chapters during this ebook current a logical series major from the chemistry and biochemistry of carbohydrates, by means of their position in numerous pathological stipulations, to carbohydrates as capability healing and diagnostic brokers. This booklet bargains a close panoramic evaluation of the chemistry and biology of carbohydrates for chemists, biologists and future health pros. each one bankruptcy is authored by way of individuals professional within the specific region of analysis.
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Extra resources for Carbohydrate Chemistry, Biology and Medical Applications
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) are now the most common ionization sources for biomolecular MS, because both of them are soft ionization techniques; that is, the sample ionization process generates few or no fragments even for large biomolecules, such as proteins and oligosaccharides, so that the intact molecular ions can be easily observed. The mass analyzer is used to separate sample ions. Commonly used analyzers include time-of-flight (TOF), quadrupole (Q), quadrupole ion trap (QIT), and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) (9–14).
Certain microorganisms convert simple sugars into polysaccharides, and many such microbial polysaccharides have useful properties (dextran, xanthan). The polysaccharides from animal tissues are usually more complex than those from plant sources, and aside from glycogen they generally contain amino sugar components, typically in alternating sequence with uronic acid residues (glycosaminoglycuronoglycans). These are discussed in detail elsewhere in this book. Major examples include hyaluronic acid and the sulfated polysaccharides chondroitin, dermatan, keratan, and heparin (69).
Isbell. Carbohydrate Division, American Chemical Society, 1988. Meyer KH, Misch L. The constitution of the crystalline part of cellulose. VI. The positions of the atoms in the new space model of cellulose. Helv Chim Acta 1937; 20:232–244. Cox EG, Jeffrey GA. Crystal structure of glucosamine hydrobromide. Nature 1939; 143:894–895. Jeffrey GA, Sundaralingam M. Bibliography of crystal structures of carbohydrates, nucleosides, and nucleotides for 1979 and 1980: addenda and errata for 1970–1978; and index for 1935–1980.