By Joel S. Migdal
Even if nation borders remained remarkably solid throughout the chilly battle, states have disappeared, splintered, consolidated, and mixed into supra-national groups considering 1990. The articles during this quantity examine borders in a brand new approach, stressing their impermanence. specifically, the learn appears to be like on the pressure among the particular borders of states and different digital barriers that body human groups. The participants comprise political scientists, sociologists, geographers, and historians who write in regards to the heart East, Europe, China, North the United States, and Asia.
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Extra resources for Boundaries and Belonging: States and Societies in the Struggle to Shape Identities and L Practices
The Ottoman Empire went through a period of relative peace in 1718–30. 32 But this proved to be a period of limited and short-lived enlightenment. 33 Also, local leaders, who had benefited from their positions as intermediaries in the implementation of the reform measures of the eighteenth century, had now become de facto independent, wielding extensive power in their localities and seriously undermining the power and authority of the central government. 34 Despite the century-long policies that aimed at creating a more stable, sedentary, and internationally secure empire, the circumstances did not look much better at the turn of the nineteenth century than they did a hundred years earlier.
Not surprisingly, agriculture was of particular concern to the state. Rural insecurity of the preceding decades had pushed large numbers of people into the cities. This and the lengthy periods for which the peasants were drafted to fight in wars, away from their farms and families, had undermined the agriculture of the empire. 22 By restricting and controlling the migratory routes of the nomads, the Ottoman government was trying to improve rural security and protect the peasants and their properties.
They had spent 19 20 21 ¨ As¸iretleri (Istanbul: Devlet Matbaası, 1930). See Ahmet Refik, Anadolu’da Turk ˙ ¨ uks,” ¨ ¨ ¨ Inalcık, “The Yur pp. 42–3; Faruk Sumer, “Anadolu, Suriye ve Irak’ta Yas¸ ayan Turk ˙ ¨ ˙ ¨ As¸ iretlerine Umumi Bakıs¸ ,” Istanbul Universitesi Iktisat Fakultesi Mecmuası 11 (1949–50): ˙ ¨ ˘ ¨ uk ¨ 515–16; Salahaddin C ¸ etinturk, “Osmanlı Imparatorlu gunda Yur Sınıfı,” Ankara ¨ ¨ Universitesi Dil ve Tarih Co˘grafya Fakultesi Dergisi (1943), p. 109. : Cornell University Press, 1993), p.