Download Basic maltese Grammar by Grazio Falzon PDF

By Grazio Falzon

(BASIC MALTESE GRAMMAR, Copyright © Grazio Falzon, South Bend,
Indiana, united states, 1997)

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Extra info for Basic maltese Grammar

Example text

2) My phonetic transcription will also show the differences in pronunciation of 'g' in 'gobon' and 'g' in 'gidba', 'z' in 'zija' and 'z' in 'zarbun', and between silent and pronounced 'h'. (3) Doubled consonants are to be lengthened phonetically at the beginning of a word or inside it. Thus ll in 'falla' must be pronounced not with one l as in English 'fuller' but with the first l closing the first syllable and with the second l opening the second syllable. Approximate phonetic analogy in English would be the pronunciation of "full life".

4) Pronunciations are given inside parentheses. A primary, or strong, stress is indicated by an apostrophe immediately following the syllable so stressed. C. ) [qa'bel kris'tu] BE, TO kien [kean] BEACH xatt il-bahar (m) [shatt ilba'har] BEADS zibeg (pl) [zi'bech] BEAK munqar (m) [mun'qar] BEAM travu (m) [tra'vu] BEAN fula (f) [fu'la] BEAR ors (m) [ors] BEAR, TO issaporta [issapor'ta] BEARD lehja (f) [leh'ya] BEAST bhima (f) [bi'ma] BEAT, TO sawwat; rebah; ghaleb [saw'wat re'bah a:'lep] BEAUTIFUL sabih [sabih'] BEAUTIFY, TO sebbah [seb'bah] BEAUTY gmiel (m) [dzmeal] BECAUSE ghaliex [a:leash'] BECOME, TO sar; xeraq [sar she'raq] BED sodda (f) [sod'da] BEE nahla (f) [nah'la] BEEF canga (f) [chan'ga] BEER birra (f) [bir'ra] BEFORE qabel [qa'bel] BEG, TO talab [ta'lap] BEGGAR tallab (m) [tallap'] BEGIN, TO beda [be'da] BEGINNER principjant (m) [princhipyant'] BEGINNING bidu (m) [bi'du] BEHALF OF, IN ghan-nom ta' [a:nnom' ta] BEHAVE, TO gab ruhu [dzap ru'hu] BEHAVIOR imgiba (f) [imdzi'ba] BEHIND wara [wa'ra] BEIGE beige [besh] BELCH, TO tfewwaq [tfew'waq] BELFRY kampnar (m) [kampnar'] BELIE, TO giddeb [gid'dep] BELIEVE, TO emmen [em'men] BELITTLE, TO maqdar; cekken [maq'dar chek'ken] BELL qanpiena (f) [qanpea'na] BELLY zaqq (f) [zaqq] BELOVED mahbub; ghaziz [mahbup' a:ziz'] BELOW taht [taht] BELT cinturin (m) [chinturin'] BEMOAN, TO karab [ka'rap] BENCH bank (m) [bank] BEND (ROAD) liwja (f) [liw'ya] BEND, TO ghawweg [a:w'wech] BENEATH taht [taht] BENEFICIAL vantaggjuz [vantadzdzyus'] BENEFIT beneficcju (m) [benefichch'yu] BENEFITING b'rizq [brisq] BESIDE magenb [madzemp'] BESIDES barra minn [bar'ra minn] BEST l-ahjar [lahyar'] BET i mhatra [imhat'ra] BET, TO ghamel imhatra [a:'mel imhat'ra] BETRAY, TO ittradixxa [ittradish'sha] BETTER ahjar [ahyar'] BETWEEN bejn [beyn] BEVERAGE xorb (m) [shorp] BEYOND lil hinn minn [lil inn minn] BEWILDER, TO hawwad [haw'wat] BEWITCH, TO sahhar [sah'har] BIAS gibda (f); pregudizzju (m) [dzib'da predzudits'tsyu] BIBLE bibbja (f) [bib'bya] BICKER, TO tlewwem; iggieled [tlew'wem idzdzea'let] BICYCLE bajsikil (f) [bay'sikil] BIG kbir [gbir] BIGOT fanatku (m) [fanat'ku] BILL kont (m) [kont] BILLI-GOAT bodbod (m) [bod'bot] BIND, TO rabat [ra'bat] BINOCULARS kannokkjali (m) [kannokkya'li] BIRD ghasfur (m) [a:sfur'] BIRD NEST bejta (f) [bey'ta] BIRTH twelid (m) [twelit'] BIRTHDAY birthday (m) [ber'dey] BISCUIT gallettina (f) [galletti'na] BISHOP isqof (m) [is'qof] BIT, A LITTLE BIT ftit [ftit] BITCH kelba (f) [kel'ba] BITE, TO gidem [gi'dem] BITTER morr [morr] BIZARRE stramb [stramp] BLABBER, TO pacpac [pach'pach] BLACK iswed [is'wet] BLACK AND WHITE abjad u iswed [ab'yat u is'wet] BLACKBERRY tuta (f) [tu'ta] BLACKSMITH haddied (m) [haddeat'] BLACK-BIRD malvizz iswed (m) [malvitsts' is'wet] BLACKMAIL rikatt (m) [rikatt'] BLADDER buzzieqa (f) [buzzea'qa] BLADE xafra (f) [shaf'ra] BLAME, TO ta htija [ta hti'ya] BLAME tort (m) [tort] BLANKET kutra (f) [kut'ra] BLASPHEMY daghwa (f) [da:'wa] BLAZE vampa (f) [vam'pa] BLEED, TO tilef id-demm [ti'lef iddemm'] BLEMISH tebgha (f) [te'ba] BLEND, TO hallat [hal'lat] BLESS, TO bierek [bea'rek] BLIND ghama [a:'ma] BLIND (WINDOW) persjana (f) [persya'na] BLINK, TO teptep [tep'tep] BLISTER nuffata (f) [nuffa'ta] BLOATED minfuh [minfuh'] BLOCK, TO imblokka [imblok'ka] BLOND bjond [byont] BLOOD demm (m) [demm] BLOOD PRESSURE pressjoni tad-demm (f) [pressyo'ni taddemm'] BLOOD TRANSFUSION trasfuzjoni tad-demm (f) [trasfuzyo'ni taddemm'] BLOOM zahar (m); nwar (m) [za:r nwar] BLOSSOM blanzun (m) [blantsun'] BLOT tebgha (f) [te'ba] BLOUSE bluza (f) [blu'za] BLOW, TO nefah; tajjar [ne'fah tay'yar] BLOW daqqa (f); disgrazzja (f) [daq'qa disgrats'tsya] BLUE ikhal [ik'hal] BLUNDER zball ohxon (m) [sball oh'shon] BLUNT spuntat [spuntat'] BLUSH, TO hmar; staha [hmar sta'ha] BOARDING HOUSE pensjoni (f) [pensyo'ni] BOAST, TO ftahar [fta'har] BOAT dghajsa (f) [da:y'sa] BOBBIN cumbin (m) [chumbin'] BOBBY PIN labra tar-ras (f) [lab'ra tarras'] BODY gisem (m) [dzi'sem] BOIL musmar (m) [musmar'] BOIL, TO ghalla [a:l'la] BOILED mgholli [mo:l'li] BOILED EGG bajda mghollija (f) [bay'da mo:lli'ya] BOISTEROUS frattarjuz [frattaryus'] BOLD qalbieni [qalbea'ni] BOLT firroll (m) [firroll'] BOMB bomba (f) [bom'ba] BOND rabta (f) [rab'ta] BONDAGE jasar (m) [ya'sar] BONE ghadma (f) [a:d'ma] BONE-DRY qoxqox [qosh'qosh] BONFIRE huggiega (f) [hudzdzea'dza] BOOK ktieb (m) [kteap] BOOK-COVER qoxra ta' ktieb (f) [qosh'ra ta kteap] BOOK-SHELF xkaffa ghall-kotba (f) [shkaf'fa a:ll kot'ba] BOOK IN ADVANCE, TO ipprenota [ippreno'ta] BOOKSTORE hanut tal-kotba (m) [hanut' talkot'ba] BORDER tarf (m) [tarf] BORE pittma (m) [pitt'ma] BORN mwieled [mwea'let] BOSOM hdan (m) [hdan] BOTANICAL GARDEN gnien botaniku (m) [dznean bota'niku] BOTTLE flixkun (m) [flishkun'] BOTTLE OPENER opener ta flixkun (m) [ow'piner ta flishkun'] BOTTOM qiegh (m) [qeah] BOULDER blata (f) [bla'ta] BOUNCE, TO qabbez [qab'bes] BOUQUET bukkett (m) [bukkett'] BOW coff (m); tislima (f); ark (m) [choff tisli'ma ark] BOW, TO miel; baxxa rasu [meal bash'sha ra'su] BOWELS msaren (m) [msa'ren] BOWL skutella (f) [skutel'la] BOX kaxxa (f) [kash'sha] BOXING boksink (m) [bok'sink] BOY tifel (m) [ti'fel] BOYCOTT, TO ibbojkottja [ibboykott'ya] BRA bra (m) [bra] BRACE, TO rabat; hazzem; sahhah [ra'bat haz'zem sah'hah] BRACELET brazzuletta (f) [bratstsulet'ta] BRAKE brejk (m) [breyk] BRAG, TO ftahar [fta'har] BRAIN mohh (m) [mohh] BRANCH fergha (f) [fe'ra] BRAND, TO immarka; stigma [immar'ka stig'ma] BRAND marka (f) [mar'ka] BRANDISH, TO xejjer [shey'yer] BRANDY brandi (m) [bran'di] BRASS ram (m) [ram] BRAT brikkun (m) [brikkun'] BRAVE qalbieni; kuragguz [qalbea'ni kuradzdzus'] BRAWL glieda (f) [dzlea'da] BRAZEN tost; bla misthija [tost bla misthi'ya] BREACH ksur (m); fetha (f) [ksur fet'ha] BREAD hobz (m) [hops] BREAD BASKET qoffina tal-hobz (f) [qoffi'na talhops'] BREAD PUDDING pudina tal-hobz (f) [pudi'na talhops'] BREADTH wisa' (f) [wi'sa] BREAK, TO qasam [qa'sam] BREAKDOWN breykdawn (m); falliment (m) [breyk'dawn falliment'] BREAKFAST kolazzjon (f) [kolatstsyon'] BREAST sider (m); zejza (f) [si'der zey'za] BREATH nifs (m) [nifs] BREATHE, TO ha n-nifs [ha nnifs] BREED, TO nissel; rabba; faqqas [ni'sel rab'ba faq'qa] BREED razza (f); boton (m) [rats'tsa bo'ton} BREEZE ziffa (f) [zif'fa] BREVITY qosor (m) [qo'sor] BRIBE, TO xtara; xahham [shta'ra shah'ham] BRICK maduma (f) [madu'ma] BRIDE gharusa (f) [a:ru'sa] BRIDEGROOM gharus (m) [a:rus'] BRIDGE pont (m) [pont] BRIEFCASE valigetta (f) [validzet'ta] BRIEFS qalziet ta taht (m) [qaltseat' ta taht] BRIGHT ileqq; intelligenti [ileqq' intellidzen'ti] BRIM xifer (m) [shi'fer] BRIMSTONE kubrit (m) [kubrit'] BRINE salmura (f) [salmu'ra] BRING, TO gab; wassal [dzap was'sal] BROADCAST, TO xandar [shan'dar] BROADCASTER xandar (m) [shandar'] BROKEN maqsum [maqsum'] BROKER sensal (m) [sensal'] BRONCHITIS bronkite (f) [bronki'te] BRONZE bronz (m) [brons] BROOCH labra (f) [lab'ra] BROOM xkupa (f) [shku'pa] BROTH brodu (m) [bro'du] BROTHEL burdell (m) [burdell'] BROTHER hu (m) [hu] BROTHER-IN-LAW haten (m); kunjat (m) [ha'ten kunyat'] BROW gbin (m) [dzbin] BROWBEAT, TO hedded; razzan [ed'det raz'zan] BROWN kannella [kannel'la] BROWSE, TO qara fuq fuq [qa'ra fuq fuq] BROWSER brawzer (m) [braw'zer] BRUISE tbengila (f) [dbendzi'la] BRUNETTE smajra [smay'ra] BRUSH xkupilja (f) [shkupil'ya] BRUSQUE goff [goff] BRUTE bhima (f) [bi'ma] BUBBLE buzzieqa (f) [buzzea'qa] BUCKET barmil (m) [barmil'] BUCKLE bokkla (f) [bokk'la] BUD blanzun (m); rimja (f) [blantsun' rim'ya] BUDGE, TO caqlaq; iccaqlaq [chaq'laq ichchaq'laq] BUFFET sajbord (m) [say'bort] BUILD, TO bena [be'na] BUILDER bennej (m) [benney'] BUILDING bini (m) [bi'ni] BULB (LIGHT) bozza (f) [bots'tsa] BULKY mgissem; taqqali [mdzis'sem taqqa'li] BULL gendus (m) [gen'dus] BULLET balla (f) [bal'la] BULLY jippretendiha [yippretendi'ya] BUMP gundalla (f); habta (f) [gundal'la hap'ta] BUNCH mazz (m); qatta (f); ghanqud (m) [matsts qat'ta a:n'qut] BUNDLE sorra (f) [sor'ra] BUNNY zarmuc (m) [zarmuch'] BUOY baga (f) [ba'ga] BURDEN taghbija (f) [ta:bi'ya] BUREAU buro' (m); skrivanija (f) [buro' skrivani'ya] BURGLAR halliel (m) [halleal'] BURIAL difna (f) [dif'na] BURN harqa (f) [har'qa] BURN, TO haraq [ha'raq] BURN OUT, TO (BULB) inharqet [inhar'qet] BURST, TO faqa'; xkatta [faqa' shkat'ta] BURY, TO difen [di'fen] BUS karozza tal-linja (f); xarabank (m) [karots'tsa tallin'ya sharabank'] BUSINESS biznis (m); xoghol (m) [biz'nis sho:l] BUSINESS TRIP vjagg ta biznis (m) [vyachchc ta biz'nis] BUS STATION venda tal-karozzi (m) [ven'da talkarots'tsi] BUS STOP stejg tal-karozza (m) [steych talkarots'tsa] BUSY okkupat; mhabbat [okkupat' mhab'bat] BUT izda [iz'da] BUTCHER tal-laham (m); biccier (m) [talla'ham bichchear'] BUTT sorm (m) [sorm] BUTTER butir (m) [butir'] BUTTERFLY farfett (m) [farfett'] BUTTOCK sorm (m) [sorm] BUTTON buttuna (f) [buttu'na] BUY, TO xtara [shta'ra] BUZZ, TO zanzan [zan'zan] BY minn; hdejn; bi; madwar [minn hdeyn bi madwar'] BYE sahha [sah'ha] C CABBAGE kabocca (f) [kaboc'hcha] CABIN (SHIP) kabina (f) [kabi'na] CABLE telegramm (m) [telegramm'] CACAO kakaw (m) [kakaw'] CACKLE, TO qaqa [qa'qa] CACTUS kaktus (m) [kak'tus] CAFE kafe' (m) [kafe'] CAFFEINE-FREE dekaffinat [dekaffinat'] CAGE gagga (f) [gadz'dza] CAJOLE, TO zieghel [zea'e:l] CAKE kejk (m); torta (f) [keyk tor'ta] CALAMITY flagell (m) [fladzell'] CALCULATOR kalkulatrici (f) [kalkulatri'chi] CALENDAR kalendarju (m) [kalendar'yu] CALF ghogol (m) [o:'dzol] CALIBER kalibru (m) [kalib'ru] CALL (PHONE) telefonata (f) [telefona'ta] CALL, TO sejjah [sey'yah] CALM kalma (f) [kal'ma] CALM, TO ikkalma [ikkal'ma] CALLOUS bla moghdrija [bla mo:dri'ya] CAMEL gemel (m) [dze'mel] CAMERA magna tar-ritratti (f) [mag'na tarritrat'ti] CAMOMILE gamumilla (f) [gamumil'la] CAMPAIGN kampanja (f) [kampan'ya] CAMPING camping (m) [kam'pink] CANARY kanarin (m) [kanarin'] CAN (TO BE ABLE) sata [sa'ta] CAN (OF FRUIT landa (f) [lan'da] CANCEL, TO annulla; hassar [annul'la has'sar] CANCER kancer (m) [kan'cher] CANDID sincier [sinchear'] CANDLE xemgha (f) [she'ma] CANDY helu (m) [he'lu] CANE bastun (m); qasba (f) [bastun' qas'ba] CANNON kanun (m) [kanun'] CANOPY baldakkin (m) [baldakkin'] CAP beritta (f) [beritta] CAPABLE bravu; kapaci [bra'vu kapa'chi] CAPER kappara (f); gabirjola (f) [kappa'ra gabiryo'la] CAPITAL (FINANCIAL) kapital (m) [kapital'] CAPRICE kapricc (m) [kaprichch'] CAPSIZE, TO inqaleb [inqa'lep] CAPTAIN kaptan (m) [kaptan'] CAPTIVATE, TO jassar; sahhar [yas'sar sah'har] CAPTURE, TO qabad; arresta [qa'bat arres'ta] CAR karozza (f) [karots'tsa] CARBON PAPER karta sahhara (f) [kar'ta sahha'ra] CARBURETOR karburatur (m) [karburatur'] CARD biljett (m) [bilyett'] CARD GAME karti tal-loghob (f) [kar'ti tallo:p'] CARDINAL kardinal (m) [kardinal'] CARE kura (f) [ku'ra] CARE, TO ta kura [ta ku'ra] CAREER karriera (f) [karrea'ra] CARESS, TO zieghel; melles [zea'e:l mel'les] CARGO taghbija (f) [ta:bi'ya] CARICATURE karikatura (f) [karikatu'ra] CARNATION qronfla (f) [qron'fla] CARNIVAL karnival (m) [karnival'] CAROB harrub (m) [harrup'] CAROL ghanja (f) [a:n'ya] CARPET tapit (m) [tapit'] CAR RENT kiri tal-karozzi (m) [ki'ri talkarots'tsi] CAR PARK parking (m) [par'kink] CARROT zunnarija (f) [tsunnari'ya] CARRY, TO garr [dzarr] CART karrettun (m) [karrettun'] CARTON (OF CIGARETTES) pakkett sigeretti (m) [pakkett' sigaret'ti] CARTRIDGE (CAMERA) roll (m) [roll] CARTRIDGE (BULLET) skartocc (m) [skartochch'] CARVE, TO naqqax [naq'qash] CASCADE kaskata (f); gelgul (m) [kaskat'a gelgul'] CASE kaz (m); kawza (f); kaxxa (f) [kaz kaw'za kash'sha] CASH flus (m) [flus] CASH, TO nkaxxa [nkash'sha] CASHIER kaxxier (m) [kashshear'] CASKET tebut (m) [tebut'] CASSEROLE kazzola (f) [katstso'la] CASSETTE kassetta (f) [kasset'ta] CASSOCK suttana (f) [sutta'na] CAST, TO xehet; rema [she'het re'ma] CASTLE kastell (m) [kastell'] CAT qattus (m) [qattus'] CATACOMB katakombi (m) [katakom'bi] CATALOG katalgu (m) [katal'gu] CATASTROPHE dizastru (m) [dizas'tru] CATCH, TO qabad [qabat'] CATER, TO ipprovda; forna [ipprof'da for'na] CATHEDRAL katedral (m) [katedral'] CATHOLIC Kattolku [kattol'ku] CATTLE bhejjem (pl) [bey'yem] CAULIFLOWER pastarda (f) [pastar'da] CAUSE kawza (f); kagun (m) [kaw'za kadzun'] CAUTION prudenza (f); kawtiela (f) [pruden'tsa kawtea'la] CAVE ghar (m) [a:r] CEASE, TO waqaf; spicca; temm [wa'qaf spich'cha temm] CEDE.

When 'GH' is followed by the vowel 'u' it takes the sound of 'ou' in the English word 'soul'. When 'GH' is the final letter in a word, it is pronounced as a soft aspirate sound like 'h' in the English word 'hair'. The phonetic transcription will show the correct variation in pronunciation. (1) General rules governing the length of vowels: -- All vowels at the end of a word are short and unstressed. -- All vowels are long when they are stressed and are followed by one consonant. They are short when followed by more than one consonant.

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