Download Bannockburn: The Triumph of Robert the Bruce by David Cornell PDF

By David Cornell

Few battles resonate via British historical past as strongly as Bannockburn. On June 24, 1314, the Scots lower than the management of Robert the Bruce all at once trounced the English, leaving hundreds of thousands useless or wounded. The victory was once one among Scotland’s maximum, the extra so as the Scottish military was once outnumbered by means of approximately 3 to at least one. The loss to the English, scuffling with less than Edward II, used to be staggering.


In this groundbreaking account of Bannockburn, David Cornell units the long-lasting conflict in political and armed forces context and focuses new consciousness at the roles of Robert and Edward within the occasions resulting in the accumulation in their armies. the writer brings the two-day conflict to lifestyles and reassesses either the an important mêlée fought at the moment day and the casualties suffered through the English. full of colourful aspect and clean insights, the ebook throws new mild at the conflict itself, the nature of the English defeat, the influence of that defeat at the process the Anglo-Scottish wars, and the strong influence of the battle’s legacy on English and Scottish nationwide identity.


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Extreme action may have been taken. According to English sources, the Scottish government was removed from Balliol’s control, a radical act in which power was forcibly taken away from the king, and was handed to a council of twelve elected Guardians who immediately entered into discussions with the French. On 23 October 1295 a treaty of mutual offence and defence was concluded between the kingdoms of Scotland and France, and on 23 February 1296 this was formally ratified by the Scottish council.

The English built a battering ram, but when brought into action it was found ineffective due to a fault in its construction. Impatient at the lack of success, Edward I rode dangerously close to the walls, his advanced age failing to temper his characteristic boldness. The king became increasingly troubled by the prolonged nature of the siege as it dragged on into summer. But Edward still had one card to play and, in terms of the most sophisticated technology, he had saved the very best until last.

In 1294 Edward had become embroiled in an argument with the French king, Philip IV. It centred on the contentious issue of the conditions by which the king of England held the T H E WO L F I N T H E F O L D 23 duchy of Aquitaine in southwest France. Aquitaine was an English possession, but technically it remained a fief of the French Crown for which the king of England owed homage, and consequently it was a frequent source of bitter dispute. In May, Philip summarily confiscated Aquitaine. In June, Edward responded by declaring his intention of taking an army to France.

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