Download Australian ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) : by Stanisław Adam Ślipiński; Australia. Department of the PDF

By Stanisław Adam Ślipiński; Australia. Department of the Environment and Water Resources.; Australian Biological Resources Study

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Additional resources for Australian ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) : their biology and classification

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40 41 Biology and ecology of Coccinellidae Some of the commonly seen ladybirds are brightly coloured and patterned, readily attracting the attention of home gardeners and small children. Most species are predatory, particularly on insects that are often pests of agriculture. Thus ladybirds have attracted the attention of biologists, too. Various aspects of the biology and ecology of the Coccinellidae are covered by several thorough reviews and books that should be consulted. These include the works of Clausen (1940); Hagen (1962); Hodek (1967, 1973); Majerus (1994); Hodek and Honek (1996); and Kuznetsov (1997).

Pollen Pollen and nectar are taken by various species. It has been shown that for many predatory Northern Hemisphere coccinellids pollen is an important food source in early spring when their main insect prey is hard to find. It is usually sufficiently nutritious for survival of a beetle, but not adequate enough for egg development. g. for Bullaea lichatschovi (Savoiskaya 1983). A combined or alternating diet is probably the rule for many Coccinellini, not the exception (Hawkeswood & Turner 2002).

Phorids almost always attack freshly formed ladybird pupae, laying their eggs on the ventral side of the pupae. The larvae hatch very quickly and the larva bores into the host, develops inside for short time, and then leaves the host to pupate in soil. Pathogens of Coccinellidae include gut-dwelling sporozoan groups, Gregarinida and Microsporidia, some nematodes and several fungal genera of unknown impact on ladybird populations (Richerson 1970; Drea & Gordon 1990; Ponsonby & Copland 1997). Hurst et al.

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