By Stanislav S. N. Gorb
All through their evolution, residing creatures have built structures to connect themselves to numerous substrate textures. As is the case in lots of technical platforms, animals use friction and adhesion to generate an attachment strength for overcoming drag. In fresh many years, our wisdom of such structures has tremendously elevated. This quantity summarizes greater than 10 years of extremely structural and experimental stories on insect attachment structures and offers an up to date evaluation of this topic. Many examples are provided and the overall ideas of the interrelationship among the development of attachment platforms and the functionality are defined displaying the ideas of morphology and extremely constitution of such platforms. the rules of layout excited by the attachment structures defined may perhaps encourage new rules when it comes to the biomimetics of latest surface-active fabrics. viewers: This quantity offers a great creation to organic attachment and may be of curiosity to biologist, zoologist, fabrics scientists and engineers.
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Additional resources for Attachment Devices of Insect Cuticle
The attachment structures in males of the bug Harpocera thoracica (Heteroptera, Miridae) are curved, hook-like setae located on the surface of the antenna (Stork, 1981). The setae are surrounded by numerous tiny microtrichia, presumably increasing friction when in contact with the female surface. The female prothorax bears scattered setae and a fine reticular surface sculpture. 5 Interlocking of body parts Insect wings can be locked onto the thorax and/or abdomen (winglocking devices). Such systems have been reported for Dermaptera, Coleoptera, Heteroptera, and Hymenoptera.
Depressor pretarsi, whereas only one muscle is present in insects. 40 Posterior abdominal tergites of the pupae of Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera, Psychidae), bear rows of anteriorly oriented spines (Neal, 1982). These fine, hook-like outgrowths are sloped at an angle of 60° to the supporting surface. Male pupae bear additional spines on abdominal segments II-VI. These structures prevent pupa from sliding out of the cocoon. In representatives of other lepidopteran families, the spines are mainly posteriorly directed and have a wide variety of shapes from one species to another (Dolynskaja, 1993).
An initial principle of classification has been based on the presence and type of innervation (non-innervated, single and multiple innervation) (Snodgrass, 1935). If one takes functional principle into account, for example mobility, cuticular protuberances may be separated into two groups: mobile and immobile. G. Richards (1951). G. A. Richards accumulated data primarily from transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin sections, and suggested a general classification and evolutionary scheme, into which a variety of modifications fits quite well.