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Furthermore, a comprehensive architecture or framework should be able to address all aspects of CIP/CIIP, including mitigation, response, and recovery issues. Generally speaking, simply “hooking together” existing infrastructure models is not feasible, as the differences between the models would be too large. 28 The idea behind emergent behavior is that from simple interactions and/or rules, complex behavior can emerge at the group level that would not occur at the individual level. 29 Today, many experts believe that CI interdependencies can be investigated most efficiently by comparing infrastructures to Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS), which are populations of interacting agents where an agent is an entity with a location, capabilities, and memory.

Metzger, op. cit. Lewis, op. cit. CIIP Handbook 2006 Understanding Critical Information Infrastructures 53 Static approach: Even though a risk assessment could theoretically be carried out on a daily basis, it is a static approach aimed at evaluating current systems and vulnerabilities. Since the process is time-consuming, there is always a delay until its results can be determined and implemented. This is especially worrying in view of the continuous rapid technological developments and because many related challenges and problems are only just emerging; the system characteristics of the emerging information infrastructure will, in fact, differ radically from traditional structures in terms of scale, connectivity, and dependencies.

Stoneburner et. , op. , p. 22. CIIP Handbook 2006 49 Understanding Critical Information Infrastructures C3 Threat Likelihood C4 Harm C5 Resultant Risk C6 Required Risk C7 C2 Threat to the Asset Column 1 Asset Identification that should be placed on security countermeasures. Again, applied values and categories may vary widely. Table 2 is an example of a Risk Assessment Table, which helps to calculate the level of the Countermeasure Priority Rating (column 7). Column 7 is simply the difference between the resultant risk and the required risk (Columns 6 and 5 in the example) expressed as a numerical value.

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