Download A Reference Grammar of Russian (Reference Grammars) by Alan Timberlake PDF

By Alan Timberlake

This textbook describes and systematizes all elements of the grammar of Russian--including styles of orthography, sounds, inflection, syntax, tense-aspect-mood, observe order, and intonation. it truly is in particular fascinated by the that means of mixtures of phrases (constructions) and the center thought is that of the predicate heritage (a checklist of the states of entities via time and throughout possibilities). utilizing predicate histories, the ebook provides an built-in account of the semantics of verbs, nouns, case, and point. it is going to entice scholars, students and language execs drawn to Russian.

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Additional resources for A Reference Grammar of Russian (Reference Grammars)

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2). This rise in F2 is written here with a directional subscript indicating fronting: [ƒö]. Because [ó] and [u]⁄ have lower values of F2 , the rise of F2 is quite precipitous in anticipation of the palatalized consonant of j vj´lt ‘about fashion’ [ mj´öd˛ ì], ,éhz ‘storm’ [bu5r˛⁄ ´]. C O N T E XT 3: C ¸ VC o : In the third context -- after a soft consonant before hard, as in vz´n ‘crumpled’ [m˛a5t]⁄ (Fig. 3) -- F2 in the initial transition rises very quickly from the previous labial to an early peak of more than 2000 Hz, and then dips to a minimum after the vowel’s midpoint, rising slightly at the end in anticipation of the final hard dental.

For {a o}, there are two possibilities: an inherited pronunciation [ï] or a newer pronunciation [ ]. 5). Under second degree of reduction after ˇSo , vowels from the non-high series {e a o} are pronounced as a central vowel [ï]: ;tktpƒ [zïl˛ ‹ ìzƒ] ‘gland’, bp ifkfiƒ [ìs ‹ ïl sƒ] ‘out of the cabin’, itkrjd∫wf [s ïlkov˛ í c´] ‘mulberry’. 22 20 21 22 The vowel is glossed as raised and backed [a] by Jones and Ward (1969). In Avanesov’s conservative norm, [zï‹ ε l˛], not quite identical to [zï‹ l˛].

The Library of Congress system, in its most rigorous formulation sanctioned by the Library,23 uses ligatures (≤/≥ > ≤ˇ ıu≥) and some diacritics (≤э≥ > ≤˙e≥), 22 Neisweinder 1962, Shaw 1967/79, Hart 1983. 23 Barry 1991. 5 Romanizations of Russian Cyrillic Cyrillic linguistic f , d u l t = ; p b q r k v y j g h c n e a [ w x i o ( s m э / z a b v g d e ¨e ˇz z i j k l m n o p r s t u f x ∼ cho c ˇc ˇs ˇsˇc ” y ’ è / ˙eo ju ja † British System Library of Congress American Geographic Society a b v g d e e zh z i i k l m n o p r s t u f kh ts ch sh shch a b v g d e ¨e (e‡ ) zh z i *¸ (i‡ ) k l m n o p r s t u f kh ‡ ts ˇ (ts ) ch sh shch (”‡ ) y (’‡ ) ˙e (e‡ ) ‡ iu ˇ (iu ) ‡ ıa (ia ) a b v g d e | ye† yo zh z i y k l m n o p r s t u f kh ts ch sh shch ” y ’ e yu ya ¯y (y‡ ) / ui§ é yu ya ≤e≥ after consonant letter, ≤ye≥ elsewhere less rigorous variant often used in practice o Continental variant § British Library in particular ‡ popular a b v g d e (ye) e (yo) zh z i y k l m n o p r s t u f kh ts ch sh shch y e yu ya Uppsala Corpus a b v g d e oh zh z i j k l m n o p r s t u f x c ch sh w qh y q eh ju ja 25 26 A Reference Grammar of Russian but these diacritics usually disappear in informal practice outside of the Library itself.

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