By Olcher Sebastian Fedden.
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Extra info for A grammar of Mian, a Papuan language of New Guinea
4 below). Vowels and diphthongs behave identically as nuclei in syllables and tone-bearing units in tone assignment. Both can function as a syllable nucleus and both can be assigned one tone. Diphthong identification is complicated by the fact that the rules of morpheme concatenation often create vowel clusters whose phonemic status is suspect. In this analysis, I accept as phonemic only diphthongs which occur (also) in nominal and verbal stems and do not only exist due to morpheme concatenation.
K/ is lenited less often than /b/. g. /Libik=i/ ‘the Ibikmin (people)’ is always pronounced [ìβìkʰì], not *[ìβìxì]. 5 Coarticulation with following alveolar nasal /n/ The bilabial stop /b/ undergoes a coarticulation process involving devoicing and place assimilation if followed by the alveolar nasal /n/. The practical orthography reflects this process. e. e. [d] > [t]. 6 Homorganic nasal assimilation Whenever the alveolar nasal /n/ precedes a stop with a different place of articulation, the nasal is assimilated to the stop with regards to the place of articulation.
For example, orthographic tǎang ‘flint, lighter’, phonemic /LHtaˤŋ/, and phonetic [tʰǎˤːŋ]. 2 Consonants Mian has 15 consonantal phonemes. There are six stops, three fricatives (including /h/), three nasals, one lateral approximant, and two semivowels. The places of articulation according to which stops and nasals are distinguished are labial, alveolar, and velar. There is a labialized velar stop series. Fricatives are articulated at the labiodental, alveolar, and glottal positions. Stops can be either voiceless or voiced, nasals are always voiced, fricatives are only voiceless.